The 1948 PKI rebellion or also called the Madiun Incident was a communist uprising that occurred on 18 September 1948 in the city of Madiun. The rebellion was carried out by members of the Communist Party of Indonesia (PKI) and other leftist parties incorporated in an organization called the “People’s Democratic Front” (FDR).
This rebellion started with the fall of the RI cabinet which was then led by Amir Sjarifuddin because his cabinet had not been supported since the Agreement of Renville Agreement. Then a new cabinet was formed with Mohammad Hatta as prime minister, but Amir and other left-wing groups disagreed with the change of cabinet.
In the PKI Politbiro session on 13-14 August 1948, Musso, a long-time Indonesian communist who lived in the Soviet Union (now Russia), described the “work and errors of the party on the basis of organization and politics” and offered an idea which he called “the New Way for the Republic of Indonesia “. Musso wants a working-class party with a historic name, the PKI. For that reason, there must be a fusion of three Marxist-Leninist parties: the illegal PKI, the Indonesian Labor Party (PBI) and the Indonesian Socialist Party (PSI). This fusion PKI will lead the proletarian revolution to establish a government called the “National Front Committee”.
Furthermore, Musso held a giant meeting in Yogya. Here he makes the importance of a presidential cabinet replaced by a united front cabinet. Musso also called for international cooperation, especially with the Soviet Union, to break the Dutch blockade. To disseminate his ideas, Musso and Amir and other left groups plan to take control of the areas considered strategic in Central and East Java, namely Solo, Madiun, Kediri, Jombang, Bojonegoro, Cepu, Purwodadi and Wonosobo. The mastery is done with agitation, demonstration, and other acts of disorder.
The plan began with the kidnapping and murder of the enemy figures in the city of Surakarta, and the local unity of the TNI troops ( INDONESIAN NATIONAL ARMY ), including the Siliwangi unity there.
Knowing that, the government immediately ordered unity TNI unions involved to restore security in Surakarta and surrounding areas. This operation was led by Colonel Gatot Subroto.
While the attention of all pro-government parties was concentrated on the restoration of Surakarta, on September 18, 1948, the PKI / FDR headed east and took control of Madiun City, East Java, and on the same day it was proclaimed the establishment of the “Soviet Republic of Indonesia”. The next day, the PKI / FDR announced the formation of a new government. In addition to Madiun, the PKI also announced the same thing in Pati, Central Java. This rebellion killed East Java Governor RM Suryo, Moewardi’s pro-independence physician, as well as several police officers and religious leaders.
To restore security thoroughly in Madiun, the government acted swiftly. East Java Province became a special area, then Colonel Sungkono appointed as military governor. The crackdown operation began on September 20, 1948, led by Colonel A. H. Nasution.
While most TNI troops in East Java concentrated on the Dutch, but using two brigades from the 3rd Division Siliwangi reserves and other units supporting the Republic, all the insurgent powers could finally be destroyed.
One of these crushing operations was the pursuit of Musso who fled to Sumoroto, west of Ponorogo. In that event, Musso was shot dead. Amir Sjarifuddin and other leftists were arrested and sentenced to death. Amir himself was caught in Grobogan, Central Java. While the remaining rebels who were not caught fled towards Kediri, East Java